Emotional abuse is when the other person does not validate how you feel and may even respond inappropriately such as being hostile. The other person may have inflicted fear in you, made you feel humiliated, distressed and in despair, etc. You then may believe that your emotional expression will lead to negative reactions. The consequence is that you may withdraw instead of express your feelings or express your feelings in anger or aggressiveness.
Psychological abuse is when the other person behaves unpredictably, deceives you, repeatedly lies, does not attend to your cognitive needs (e.g., discounts whatever you say or has a better opinion), controls your choices, and is neglectful to your intellectual needs. The consequence is that you may start to question yourself, lack self-esteem, become confused, find it difficult to make decisions, have trouble with attention, memory and impaired development of intelligence.
Emotional and psychological abuse is nonphysical and can occur in the workplace, at home (relationships, families), in educational settings to groups, children, adults and individuals. Emotional and psychological abuse can be part of physical abuse or a precursor to physical abuse.
Source: Genfer, R., Rossmai, R. (1997). Emotional abuse. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 1(1), 1-5. DOI: 10.1033/J135V01N01_01 O’Hagan, K. P. (1995). Emotional and psychological abuse: problems of definition. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(4), 449-461.
Further signs of emotional and psychological abuse
Made to believe you are not good enough, belittled
Not included in activities, left out
Criticised of what you wear, friendships, life choices, etc
Treatment for those being emotional, psychologically abused and those who are the abuser
Treatment can offer improved assertive skills, awareness of healthy relationship with self (self-love and confidence) and others (respect), improved compassion for self and others, self-development and growth, developing a secure attachment style (learning how to manage conflict, comfortable with receiving and providing support during and after challenges and feeling secure enough to explore the world), and more.